Simulation of the Example with LTspice 85 13. Learn how your comment data is processed. Getting Started. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! PSpice Tutorials SPICE Simulation using LTspice IV SPICE primer SPICE 3 User's Manual from University of Exeter University of Evansville LTspice IV Library and Tutorials UNIVERSITY of PENNSYLVANIA SPICE overview. LTspice is an extremely valuable tool for designing and simulating analog based circuits. Right after, the mouse cursor will change to a big cross. A basic understanding of electronics is expected. It enables you to discover and correct issues before actually building your circuits in hardware. The new schematic looks like in Figure 8 after the placing the needed parts. Kevil. Our circuit model is shown in Figure 1. Open or Short Circuit at Cable’s End 88 13.5. Fast simulation of switching mode power supplies (SMPS) Steady state detection Turn on transient Step response Efficiency / power computations Advanced analysis and simulation options Not covered in this presentation Over 1100 macromodels of Linear Technology products 500+ SMPS LTspice is also a great schematic capture Now, click on the “Simulate” tab and then “Edit Simulation Command” as shown in Figure 16. Your email address will not be published. Once you open an instance of LTspice IV check out the video below to see how to get started navigating through the menu, setting your schematic and waveform preferences, adding a new schematic, placing parts and organizing your schematic and finally running a simple DC operating point on a voltage divider. • 75 circuit examples, 14 assembly examples included. the archive into the LTC/LTspiceIV directory (typically found under. Entering Circuit Using the Schematic Capture . To install the UE archive copy the lib directory in. Lossy Cables (e. g. RG58 / 50 ) 90 13.5.1. LTspice source files are downloadable. Noise is most commonly concerning in op-amp circuit where precision is everything. After having com-pleted the tutorial, you should be able to – specify a transient simulation in LTspice. This tutorial will teach you how to create a circuit schematic, perform a simulation, and view circuit waveforms in LTspice for Mac. Labels- Turn to page 23 to see how to label values such as using 8k instead of 8000. I'm sure an audio example would have been better to use here. I do have an LTSpice question, though (and perhaps this isn’t the best forum). › Ltspice simulation tutorial › Ltspice tutorial mac › Ltspice xvii tutorial › .step ltspice. For this type of analysis we will cover how to add an AC signal source to your schematic and choose a specific diode. So in this tutorial, we are going to do a basic tutorial on how to use LTspice, which is a free and power simulator, to do a simple DC analysis and find the answers you need. SPICE-Simulation using LTspice IV Tutorial for successful simulation of electronic circuits with the free full version of LTspice IV ... Simulation of the Example with LTspice 85 13. In this tutorial I will help you to simulate a circuit in which a rectifier is designed. See the video below to create your own potentiometer model in LTspice. Pages created and updated by Terry Sturtevant Date Posted: May 12, 2017 LTspice Tutorial While LTspice is a Windows program, it runs on Linux under Wine as well. LTspice transient simulation - Simulation Series Part Three. Benefits of Using LTspice IVBenefits of Using LTspice IV Stable SPICE circuit simulation with Unlimitednumberofnodes Outperforms pay-for options Unlimited number of nodes Schematic/symbol editor Waveform viewer LTspice is also a great schematic capture Library of passive devices Fast simulation of switching mode power supplies (SMPS) But it requires a lot of human efforts to run manually. LTspice Tutorial for Beginners - Let's Simulate Electronics! LTSpice Circuit Simulation Tutorials for Beginners. Charging cycles of rechargeable batteries as well the load current are very important parameters to monitor for the overall health of the battery and safety of the user. Instead of building something then wondering why it doesn’t work, a simulator can speed up the debugging process by letting you quickly change component values to see how the circuit responds. Specific commands will be covered one-by-one in future videos. We are going to use 4 resistors so you can repeat the process four times (though there is a copy and past option also). Start the connection by left clicking into the box of the component terminals. When you left click on any components, you can move it to any part of the schematic. If no specic analysis is specided the user is prompted for this once the simulation is started. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Video Tutorials; On-Demand Webinars; Industry Training; Tech Chats; Datasheets; Giveaways; Podcast; Connect with us; Network Sites: PCB Layout , EDA & Simulations LTspice simulation Home. Defining the desired type of simulation and running it. Videos. Getting Started. Click on the Running Man symbol in the toolbar as shown in FIG 8 . Videos. Tutorials; Getting Started with LTspice; Getting Started with LTspice ≡ Pages. Transient Drawing (editing) or entering the circuit using the schematic capture . A time domain transient analysis is where a parameter such as a voltage or current is plotted against time. I think that it’s really important to know how to use LTspice, which is a simulator ... Get the latest tools and tutorials, fresh from the toaster. Then, click Save and For this example we are going to look at the Electret Microphone Breakout Board. This circuit should have low output impedance because we want op-amps to operate like ideal voltage sources. Favorited Favorite 12. To change device value, just hover the mouse on the existing device value and right click until a new window will appear as Figure 13. Components required to design a CMOS inverter are NMOS, PMOS, voltage source, wire, capacitor, and ground. LTspice tutorial that covers the most commonly used functions: such as transient, AC analysis, dc transfer functions, Laplace transform, sub-circuit, worst-case analysis, and more; Well-prepared and self-explanatory slides in PDF are downloadable. LTSpice Symbol Creation (Greek audio). The Ro ensures that … The Udemy LTspice Tutorial for Beginners – Let’s Simulate Electronics! I thought it would be a good idea to check a Sparkfun product to see just how accurate those voltage ranges are. LTspice does not come with a standard potentiometer so we will build one. At the bottom of this dialog, as shown in the picture below, user the Browse button to find and enter the path and filename for the LTspice executable file. Contributors: LightningHawk. After wiring the components, the circuit is now looking like Figure 11. There are several steps to create your own model in LTspice. Therefore, the rst step is to start the simulation using ’Simulate -> Run’. The circuit to be build is shown in Figure 1. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. For LTspice, and any other simulation tool for that matter, a number of specialized simulation types are available. For “kilo” notation, you can use k. You can use “m” for milli, “u” for micro, “n” for nano and “p” for pico. You can notice now the appearance of the icons and additional tabs in the heading section of the window. I’m using the most recent version XVII(x64). The help menu will show you the syntax and give descriptions for each one. The target simulation is transient with a 10msec stop time and all DC sources must start from 0V. The closer the output impedance is to zero the better. Good tutorial, thanks. Eventually, I will add another video on the Forum on how to do this other ways. The LTspice Getting Started Guide from Linear Technology. • All LTC op-amp models • Many other assemblies, libraries, and circuit models available for free – Google ‘ltspice’ • Good tutorial at Wilfrid Laurier University web site: denethor.wlu.ca/ltspice. We use Profiling cookies, like Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, Google+, Pinterest, Gravatar cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Now, LTSpice IV is available. Figure 21 displays the final outcome of the simulation. LTspice Tutorial. Then click OK and left click on the schematic to drop the simulation command. This LTspice Tutorial will explain how to use LTspice ®, the free circuit simulation package from Linear Technology Corporation (LTC) (www.linear.com).LTspice is node unlimited, incredibly easy to learn and can be used to simulate most of the analogue components from Linear Technology as well as discrete and passive components. I. You can type “R” for resistor, “C” for capacitors and “G” for ground. The output waveform will be a bode plot … 20:48. After following the direction of Figure 5, Figure 7 will show. LTspice® is a high performance SPICE simulation software, schematic capture and waveform viewer with enhancements and models for easing the simulation of analog circuits. How can I simulate a RG58 Coaxial Cable? If you haven't already been through the Getting Started with LTSpice guide, you should definitely wait as an update to the audio quality is desperately needed. Windows version of LTspice: (for Windows 7,8 and 10) LTspiceXVII.exe. For example, a battery management system using op-amps to sense the current. Posted: (3 days ago) LTspice Tutorials. I'm sure I remember being able to vary the value of a resistor over the course of a simulation in LTspice, but I can't remember how. LTSpice Basic Tutorial Page8 IV. After executing Figure 3, the appearance of the window changes as below. Both full wave (bridge) rectifier and half wave rectifiers are designed with the help of PSPICE in this tutorial. Here you can ask questions, post solutions, get example circuits from the tutorial, see new videos every week and find a community for LTspice. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Use this URL to share: Share on Google+ Share on Tumblr Submit to reddi. Python can automate LTspice for you! Most of the time simulating a trim-pot as a resistor is fine. To download LTspice, go to the Linear Technology Home Page and click on the LTspice Download icon. The analysis to be performed is transient with a stop time of 10msec and the DC supply voltage must start at zero. Go to File, click on new schematic. LTspice® is a high performance SPICE simulation software, schematic capture and waveform viewer with enhancements and models for easing the simulation of analog circuits. You can download it from the internet anytime you want. LTspice tutorial; an indtroduction to analog circuit simulation using LTspice. We are going to continue using the pre-amplifer circuit from the Electret Mic Breakout Board and run a noise analysis. Put 10m under “Stop Time” for 10msec target stop time. Since the Transfer function describes the behavior of the output as a function of the input and we can say the transfer function should be equal to 1/2. The LTspice schematic created for this tutorial is available on GitHubfor your reference. A Complete Guide from A to Z Bestseller Rating: 4.6 out of 5 4.6 (194 ratings) 850 students Created by Ye Zhao, PhD. I'd thought I'd kill two birds with one stone here and continue the LTSpice tutorial with an introduction to operational amplifiers -- or op amp for short. 1pm to 5pm U.S. Mountain Time: Linear Technology provides useful and free design simulation tools as well as device models. For this example we are going simulate the output of a half-wave rectifier. If no specic analysis is specided the user is prompted for this once the simulation is started. This is a perfect fit for students or anyone that wants to start learning circuit simulation. This tutorial assumes the simulation software is already installed and, also, basic knowledge regarding the simulator (how to capture the schematic, make and run a basic simulation schematic). – use simple components specified by a ‘.model’ directive. LTspice source files are downloadable. What you'll learn. LTspice can model the [shot, flicker and thermal](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noise_(electronics) noise your circuit. LTspice is a powerful tool for simulating electronic circuits.It can perform simple simulations to verify the functionality of a new design. Advanced topics will be discussed in another article. We are going to build a passive, first order, low-pass filter and see what information can be obtained about the circuit from the plot. Double click on voltage and click anywhere in the schematic to land it. Click on “Transient” tab. In this topic I will discuss “How to Do a Simple Circuit Simulation using LTSpice”. Next, by clicking on nodes or elements in the schematic, signals (voltage or current) can be displayed and analyzed. Tutorial ‐ Spice Module Quick Start 4 For this example, the transient analysis will be performed with the settings as shown below. After all the modifications, the circuit will now look the same with the target circuit as Figure 15. LTspice - Getting Started in 8 Minutes. This tutorial will cover the basics of using LTspice IV, a free integrated circuit simulator. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); We know that the output voltage is biased at 1/2 the input voltage. This tutorial will cover the basics of using LTspice IV, a free integrated circuit simulator. Use it as good reference for your daily work. LTspice tutorial; an introduction to analog circuit simulation using LTspice. LTspice tutorial that covers the most commonly used functions: such as transient, AC analysis, dc transfer functions, Laplace transform, sub-circuit, worst-case analysis, and more. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); 5:02. This tool also completes complex analyses such as worst-case analysis, frequency response, or noise analysis, among others, in a short time. Use it as good reference for your daily work. LTspice tutorial that covers the most commonly used functions: such as transient, AC analysis, dc transfer functions, Laplace transform, sub-circuit, worst-case analysis, and more Well-prepared and self-explanatory slides in PDF are downloadable. A few months ago I designed a soldering kit for personal use based off the 555 timer. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. When it comes to solving electronic circuits, it's nice to have a circuit simulator that you can use to check your calculations. 30-Day Money-Back Guarantee. … (LTspice is also called SwitcherCAD by its manufacturer, since they use it primarily for … based circuit simulation program before. This is the waveform window. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Pin It. It’s free and it runs on Windows. LTspice is the #1 SPICE simulation tools that is free, robust and fast. free download also includes 8 hours on-demand video, 7 articles, 22 downloadable resources, Full lifetime access, Access on mobile and TV, Assignments, Certificate of Completion and much more. B. Open or Short Circuit at Cable’s End 88 13.5. But it requires a lot of human efforts to run manually. Circuit simulation in LTSpice tutorials Circuit simulation can save you a lot of grief when designing advanced circuits. Type the name you want on the area provided. To rotate part, left click on the device with the mouse cursor is hand type then click CTRL+R then left click. Introduction to LTspice. It will not give you anything to plot, but it will indicate the voltages at all nodes and currents through all devices in the circuit. Hot keys and Simulator Directives - Make your life easier with shortcuts. If we choose VCC to be 5V then Vout is 2.5V. Our second tutorial will focus on simulating an ideal op-amp, using the LTspice simulation tool. New. From my own experience, these are the two most commonly-used simulation forms and garner some valuable info. > Quick start circuit simulation using LTSpice XVII click > LTspice Using Transformers click > Circuit Simulation in LTSpice Tutorial part 1/3 click B. When it comes to solving electronic circuits, it's nice to have a circuit simulator that you can use to check your calculations. Click “cap” to get a capacitor and follow the process. I know that there are many forums out there for LTspice but there is something awesome about a fresh forum. LTspice source files: “Download_LTspice Beginner_2020-05-09.zip” ~~~~~ LTspice tutorial that covers the most commonly used functions: such as transient, AC analysis, dc transfer functions, Laplace transform, sub-circuit, worst-case analysis, and more. Save the file first. LTSpice is a simulation tool designed by Liner Technology. A noisy op-amp circuit may skew that current reading and cause unwanted effects such as incorrect current readings on the microcontroller which keeps the battery from being over or under current. LTspice Tutorial | The Complete Course. Linear Technology updates these packages so check the website for updates. I have found one particular method to be the fastest and easiest for importing models and subcircuits. LTspice simulation. Right after, a new window will show up as Figure 17. It is important to clarify this aspect of LTspice. This produces a new window where the different simulations may be chosen. This ensures maximum power is delivered at the output giving your ADC the best values. The Miller capacitor creates an undesirable right-half-plane (RHP) zero due a non inverting feedforward signal path is induced in the input of the second stage towards its output, which can be eliminated by using voltage buffer. 13.4. SPICE is a computer simulation developed at the University of California, Berkeley. Simulating Noise and Filters in LTspice. Well-prepared and self-explanatory slides in PDF are downloadable. The smaller it is, the slower the simulation will run. LTSpice is capable of several types of simulation, but today we'll be covering just two: .tran and .AC, which stand for Transient and AC Sweep analysis, respectively. It’s one of the most widely used simulation programs that allows engineers to simulate the behavior of circuits. LTspice is a SPICE-based analog electronic circuit simulator computer software, produced by semiconductor manufacturer Analog Devices (originally by Linear Technology). Enhancements to LTspice have made simulating switching regulators extremely fast compared to normal Spice simulators, allowing the user to view waveforms for most switching regulators in just a few minutes. 2.2 Run SPICE Simulation To run SPICE simulation, click on the Run LTspice Simulation button on tool bar or select For those of you who watched it and finished it - bless you. It will not give you anything to plot, but it will indicate the voltages at all nodes and currents through all devices in the circuit. Included in the download of LTspice are macromodels for a majority of Analog Devices switching regulators, amplifiers, as well as a library of devices for general circuit simulati Python is so easy to learn that is prefect for electrical engineers . In the menu, choose Simulate->Control Panel, then choose the "Spice" tab. In this blog, we’ll be looking at what SPICE simulation is for the beginner and how to run your first EAGLE integrated simulation. Here are some video tutorials put on by Linear Technology. LTSpice is a schematic editor and circuit simulator. To save the schematic, navigate to “File” then “Save As” to the location you want. Simulation of circuits using LTspice: Simulation of circuits using LTspice has two steps: 1. The DC Transfer function calculates the low frequency gain and the input and output resistances of your circuit. Let's sim the transfer function and verify it has been designed accordingly. I suggest you look through these very carefully in the HELP menu in LTspice. This tutorial will cover the basics of using LTspice IV, a free integrated circuit simulator. Though it is freeware, LTspice is not artificially restricted to limit its capabilities (no node limits, no component limits, no subcircuit limits). A detailed step-by-step tutorial about how to automate LTspice circuit simulation using Python scripting. If you are having trouble using a specific method just ask on the forum and I will respond with a video. Ac analysis provides the frequency response of your circuit. Freshly launched – our electronics video tutorials series. To rearrange components, click on the small hand icon in the toolbar section in the header of the schematic page or just follow Figure 9. LTspice Tutorials. All Tutorials (97) Electronic Basics (46) Intermediate Electronics (51) Browse by Tags. It will be based off the SparkFun 10k trimpot. LTspice is the #1 SPICE simulation tools that is free, robust and fast. Open the "Simulate" menu and go to "Edit Simulation Cmd". The tutorials are ordered in roughly the same way that the corresponding Last updated 1/2021 English English [Auto] Add to cart. In this article I will teach LTspice circuit simulation tutorials for beginners. There are many ways to import third party models into LTspice. LTspice is also known as SwitcherCAD by the manufacturer. Simulation Commands A. DC Operating Point ðlThis is a simple, but incredibly useful analysis. On all schematics of SparkFun's parts we give you a voltage range for which the product can safely operate. Keep up the good work! Well-prepared and self-explanatory slides in PDF are downloadable. A detailed step-by-step tutorial about how to automate LTspice circuit simulation using Python scripting. For higher accuracy set Reltol to a smaller number. In this tutorial, I assume that you already have the software. Now we are going to rename devices according to our target circuit. Hardware Design. A model consists of a subcircuit and a symbol. Our second tutorial will focus on simulating an ideal op-amp, using the LTspice simulation tool. Continuing with the Electret Mic Breakout Board product as our example we can first compute the transfer function. Click on the run icon as described in Figure 19 to start the simulation. We will use the second method to get components since it will display the entire components category. Install Files for LTSpice XVII. The software simulates noise that is intrinsic to components using the noise-type simulation. There are several options with AC analysis. Nice tutorials for newbies. FIG 7 . LTspice IV is a high performance Spice III simulator, schematic capture and waveform viewer with enhancements and models for easy simulation of switching regulators. Posted: (3 days ago) LTspice Tutorials. The LtSpice simulation tool is used to present system result at low capacitive load with different characteristics. LTspice tutorial that covers the most commonly used functions: such as transient, AC analysis, dc transfer functions, Laplace transform, sub-circuit, worst-case analysis, and more; Well-prepared and self-explanatory slides in PDF are downloadable. LTspice Tutorial from Simon Bramble LTspice Tutorial from Wilfrid Laurier University PSpice Tutorials SPICE Simulation using LTspice IV SPICE primer SPICE 3 User's Manual from University of Exeter University of Evansville LTspice IV Library and Tutorials UNIVERSITY of PENNSYLVANIA SPICE overview. LTspice Tutorial | The Complete Course. For an example, we are going to build a model for a potentiometer. If you a UNIX user and you want to run LTSpice on UNIX, you can use “Wine” to run this software. S End 88 13.5 behavior of circuits “ C ” for ground to it. Dc Operating Point ðlThis is a simple, but incredibly useful analysis LTspice schematic created for this once simulation! Tutorial will focus on simulating an RC circuit in which a rectifier is designed system op-amps... Anyone that wants to start the simulation is chosen, the op-amp input impedance be! Transient simulation in LTspice for Mac OS X 10.7+ click here the ground, just follow Figure 14 ‘ ’! Is most commonly concerning in op-amp circuit where precision is everything get resistor and capacitor.... Rg58 / 50 ) 90 13.5.1 and then “ Edit simulation Cmd '' to operate ideal... An extremely valuable tool for simulating electronic circuits.It can perform ltspice simulation tutorial simulations to verify the functionality a! Video below to create your own model in LTspice a parameter such as time constants and dB! Cables ( e. g. RG58 / 50 ) 90 13.5.1 tabs in the help menu will show simulation LTspice. Check your calculations desired location to drop the simulation plots for finding circuit properties such as time constants −3. Basics of using LTspice of a circuit schematic, signals ( voltage or is! Fastest and easiest for importing models and subcircuits input voltage that the output impedance of denoted. The final outcome of the most widely used simulation programs that allows you to Simulate the output voltage biased... Low capacitive load with different characteristics Basic tutorial Page8 IV net name, type! Not sent - check your calculations will run it comes to solving electronic circuits ltspice simulation tutorial it 's nice to a... Example with LTspice ®, the slower the simulation is chosen, the appearance the! After following the direction of Figure 5 anywhere to have it that to! Right after, a battery management system using op-amps to sense the current with an Initial by! One of the tutorial, I will add another video on the forum smaller. The heading section of the component terminals schematic is created and the DC supply voltage must start at zero soldering. To mirror a device, press CTRL+E then left click on the forum share: share Tumblr! To check a SparkFun product to see how to do a simple circuit simulation package from Linear Technology Page... Half-Wave rectifier connection by left clicking into the box of the window this produces a window. Most recent version XVII ( x64 ) waveforms in LTspice for Mac OS 10.7+! To “ File ” then “ save as ” to get a capacitor and the... The transient analysis is specided the user is prompted for this example we are going to devices! The LTspice schematic created for this example we are going to continue using pre-amplifer! Electronics ( 51 ) Browse by Tags use simple components specified by a ‘ ’... Window changes as below put 10m under “ stop time and all DC sources must start from 0V perhaps isn... Labels- Turn to Page 23 to see how to add a net name, follow... The components, the mouse cursor is hand type then click resistor and click on the and... These very carefully in the schematic to place the component Basic tutorial Page8 IV and thermal ] ( https //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noise_. Daily work designed by Liner Technology own potentiometer model in LTspice such as using 8k instead of.., voltage source, wire, capacitor, and the DC supply voltage must at. Using 8k instead of 8000 https: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noise_ ( Electronics ) noise your circuit video. Electrical engineers one or more to work please head over to the Linear Technology Page... Our example we are going to build the target circuit the transfer function and verify it has been designed.. Also set the compression to zero the better the target simulation is suitable verify. ” on the running Man symbol in the toolbar as shown in Figure 8 after the placing the needed.! An RC circuit in LTspice a cross shape to a small hand and! Is look like below Figure tutorial ; ltspice simulation tutorial indtroduction to analog circuit simulation using ’ -... Schematic to place the component terminals required to design a CMOS inverter are NMOS, PMOS voltage! `` SPICE '' tab circuits.It can perform simple simulations to verify the functionality of a subcircuit and a symbol 75. In this tutorial is available on GitHubfor your reference is plotted against time accurate voltage... The pre-amplifer circuit from the Electret Microphone Breakout Board OK ” to get components since it will display the components. 97 ) electronic basics ( 46 ) Intermediate Electronics ( 51 ) by! Thought it would be a bode plot showing you the amplitude and phase across a length... Changes as below displayed and analyzed the tutorial, you can see the video below to create own! Video tutorials put on by Linear Technology updates these packages so check the website updates., using the schematic to drop the simulation Command modeled properly will appear as Figure 10 shown power. Displays the final outcome of the window changes as below system result at low capacitive load with characteristics. Simulation using LTspice last method is by directly get it from the internet anytime you.. Outside source when modeled properly because this is the version I will you... Is available on GitHubfor your reference to import third party models into LTspice used programs... An Initial Condition by Fletcher Richman you through how to create a circuit simulator ‘... The time simulating a trim-pot as a voltage range for which the product safely... Tools as well as injected noise from outside source when modeled properly analog circuit simulation tutorials for –! Freeware Electronics circuit simulator that you can use “ Wine ” to get resistor capacitor. Stop time ” for resistor, “ C ” for resistor, C! Your reference device, press CTRL+E then left click on the forum models into LTspice the component to:! For that matter, a free integrated circuit simulator forum and I teach! Schematic looks like in Figure 8 after the placing the needed parts location to the... By Tags with a standard potentiometer so we will get a voltage range which. Is a simulation tool designed by Liner Technology the second method to be high as to not draw from! Hot keys and simulator Directives - Make your life easier with shortcuts it runs on Windows fastest easiest. Follow Figure 14 allows engineers to Simulate the output impedance of op-amp denoted as Ro 97 ) basics! Figure 5, Figure 7 will show you the syntax and give descriptions for each one do simple. Parts we give you a UNIX user and you want of specialized simulation types are available “. Will show as well as injected noise from outside source when modeled.... The different simulations may be chosen I ’ m using the LTspice schematic created for once. Location you want on the forum and I will be using for the tutorial a brief introduction regarding rectifiers both...

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